Chinese University of Science and Technology made progress in the field of narrow-spectrum antibacterial

[ Instrument Network Instrument R & D ] The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance seriously threatens global public health security. Meeting this challenge urgently requires the development of new antimicrobials and antimicrobial therapies. Narrow-spectrum antibacterials / therapies can specifically identify and eliminate target germs, thereby reducing off-target interference with host symbiotic flora, and reducing the pressure on drug resistance to evolve. However, due to the inherent difficulty of distinguishing pathogens from probiotics and the lack of investment enthusiasm of pharmaceutical companies for narrow-spectrum antibacterials, the development of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials / therapeutics has been extremely delayed. In response to this problem, Yang Lihua's group at the University of Science and Technology of China proposed to give existing broad-spectrum antibacterials / therapies the ability to identify target bacteria, thereby transforming them into a narrow-spectrum antibacterials / therapies.
Photodynamic therapy uses photodynamic sensitizers to respond to light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in situ to remove target cells. However, "success is also Xiao He, and defeat is also Xiao He." On the one hand, because ROS can simultaneously destroy a variety of cellular substances that are essential for the normal function of cells, photodynamic therapy can eliminate drug-resistant bacteria, and at the same time, can delay bacteria's acquisition of drug resistance. On the other hand, because ROS can inadvertently remove the cells where they pass, photodynamic therapy is conventionally a broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy.
Recently, Yang Lihua's group discovered for the first time that when nanospheres with negatively charged surfaces are mixed with bacteria, the nanospheres will selectively adsorb to the surface of cocci but not to the surface of the bacillus. The selected recognition mechanism is driven by entropy increase and is universally applicable to a variety of nanospheres with different composition and surface chemistry. Based on this physical recognition mechanism and the extremely limited effective active radius of ROS (less than 200 nm) (Figure 1), the researchers suspected that if the nanospheres had a photodynamic effect, it would be possible to efficiently remove cocci in the light without disturbing the bacilli (Figure 1 and bottom). This conjecture was confirmed by antibacterial experiments using different photodynamic nanospheres and multiple bacteria. Related research results were published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters under the title of Selective Entropy Gain-Driven Adsorption of Nanospheres onto Spherical Bacteria Endows Photodynamic Treatment with Narrow-Spectrum Activity. This work not only reveals for the first time the key role of bacterial morphology in similarly charged nanosphere / bacterial interactions, but also promises to be used for diseases such as allergic dermatitis caused by cocci over-proliferation in the microenvironment of healthy symbiotic flora. Provide a new treatment.
The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Yang Liqian, the corresponding author of Yang Lihua's dissertation and postgraduate student Yang Binqian, is the first author of the dissertation.

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