The necessary knowledge of open pit mines, without it, it is difficult to move, it is recommended to collect

I. Types of common accidents in open pit mining

1, mechanical injury

2, blasting accident

3. Electrical accidents

4. Open pit mine landslide

5, dumping landslide

6, mudslide accident

Second, the safety requirements of mining and stripping operations

(1) The width of the safety platform should not be too narrow, generally 15~25m is suitable.

(2) Set up the rolling stone platform. When using the steep help to expand the work, generally a 60-90m height should be arranged with a rolling stone platform, the width of which is 20~25m, to prevent the expansion of the rolling stone to threaten the normal mining and stripping operation.

(3) Division expansion. Expanding and peeling and normal stripping should be divided into operations, such as staggering operations in the same section. Depending on the size of the spread height difference, the horizontal staggered distance should generally be greater than 200m.

(4) Directional blasting. The directional blasting is used to expand the blasting direction so that the blasting direction does not turn to the side of the goaf, so as to prevent the expansion of the blasting stone to threaten the safety of the normal mining and stripping operation. It is strictly forbidden to blast at the same time with two adjacent combination steps.

(5) Ensure the safety of transportation operations. In the steep mining and stripping stage, the above-mentioned expansion operations are not allowed, and transportation equipment is not allowed to pass.

3. Investigation and disposal of hidden dangers in perforation operations

01 security check

(1) The rig must walk down on a large slope (greater than 15°). The rig should be lowered and anti-overturning measures must be taken; the main frame must be lowered when passing under the power line.

(2) drilling rig and the lower level near the bottom of the slope shovel is not the same job.

(3) The operator must wear a seat belt when handling the fault on the main frame or performing normal maintenance.

02 safe disposal

(1) When the rig is stable, keep a sufficient safety distance from the top line of the step. The minimum distance from the center of the jack to the top line of the step slope: 1m for the trolley, 2.5m for the roller drill, down-the-hole drill, steel rope impact drill, and 3.5m for the soft rock mass. When the rig is working, there should be no one on the platform, and non-operators should not stay around it. When the rig is stopped for a long time, the power on the machine should be cut off.

(2) When the rig is walking near the edge of the step, it should be checked whether the walking route is safe; the minimum distance from the protruding part of the outer side of the trolley to the top line of the stepped slope is 2m, and the minimum distance from the protruding part of the outer side to the top line of the stepped slope is 3m.

(3) When the rig moves, someone should be guided and monitored. When walking, the driver should first whistle, there should be no people before and after the track; should not make a sharp turn at 90° or walk on a soft ground; when passing through high and low voltage lines, maintain a sufficient safety distance. The rig should not stay on the ramp for a long time; without adequate illumination, it should not be driven at night.

(4) When moving the cable and stopping, cutting, and sending power, wear high-voltage insulated gloves and insulated shoes strictly, and use cable hooks that meet safety requirements. When the rig has a ground fault, it should be stopped immediately, and no one should go up and down the rig.

4. Investigation and disposal of hidden dangers in blasting operations

01 Preparation before blasting operation

(1) Prepare tools and utensils for charging.

(2) Understand the weather.

(3) Do a good job in linking related aspects before blasting.

(4) Do a good job of alert work.

(5) Acceptance of the blasthole: Whether the blasthole meets the design requirements, whether there is any deflection; whether there is a hole blocking or card hole phenomenon, whether the chamber is in danger of collapse; whether there is water in the blasthole.

After inspection, if there is a problem in the blasthole, it must be processed before it can be detonated.

02 Safety management and inspection of blasting operations

(1) Leaders at all levels should include blasting operations in the important agenda of safety production, strengthen supervision, and have special personnel responsible for blasting operations.

(2) Establish and improve various safety management systems for blasting operations and strictly implement them.

(3) Carefully organize the training of the blasters, improve their overall quality, and hold the certificate.

(4) Strengthen the management of blasting materials and strictly implement the issuance system. After each blast, the blaster must promptly withdraw the remaining blasting equipment .

(5) The blasting operation must be carried out according to the approved blasting design book or blasting instructions.

(6) A blasting signal system must be established to do the alert work. Firstly, the warning signal will be issued in chronological order to clear the field; after the clearance is completed, the personnel and equipment will be evacuated from the blasting warning zone. The warning distance must have a sufficient safety factor. All the security personnel are in place and the detonation signal is issued when there is a safe detonation condition. The detonating personnel are allowed to detonate; the safety waiting time (generally not less than 5 min, the special circumstances are determined by the design), after the inspection personnel enter the demolition warning range to check, after the safety is confirmed, the blasting warning release signal is issued.

(8) When one of the following situations occurs at the blasting operation site, blasting operations are prohibited:

1 Not strictly prepared according to the requirements of the Blasting Safety Regulations;

2 there is a danger of slipping down the slope;

3 The blasting parameters or construction quality do not meet the design requirements;

4 endanger the safety of equipment or buildings, without effective protective measures;

5 There is no warning on the boundary of the dangerous area;

6 Hazard of water in the work site or abnormal temperature of the blasthole;

(9) Personnel engaged in blasting equipment processing and blasting operations are prohibited from wearing chemical fiber clothing.

(10) After blasting, the site must be inspected and the blasting record must be filled out.

03 blind cannon processing

In the blasting work, the phenomenon that the blasting charge (detonator or detonating cord) is ignited and the explosive is not exploded due to various reasons is called a blind cannon, including residual explosion and refusal. Handling blind guns must comply with the following regulations:

(1) Before the blind cannon is handled, the blasting leader shall set the warning range and set a warning at the boundary of the area. When dealing with the blind cannon, the unrelated personnel are not allowed to enter the warning zone.

(2) When a power burst occurs in a blind cannon, the power supply should be cut off immediately, and the blind cannon circuit should be short-circuited in time.

(3) The primer bag in the blasthole and the pot should not be pulled out or pulled out.

(4) After the blind cannon is treated, the explosive pile should be carefully inspected, and the residual blasting equipment should be collected and destroyed; precautions should be taken before the explosion-proof blasting equipment can be confirmed.

(5) After the blind cannon is processed, the processor should fill in the registration card or submit a report explaining the cause of the blind cannon, the method and result of the treatment, and the preventive measures.

V. Trouble shooting and handling of shovel loading operations

01 Shovel loading safety inspection

More than two (1) of the same platform operating excavators and excavator distance between two adjacent stages at the same time must meet work requirements "metal nonmetallic open pit mine safety regulations" of.

(2) The excavator walks within the stable range of the working platform.

(3) When the excavator or the front-loading machine is installed in the shovel operation, the bucket is prohibited from passing over the cab of the vehicle.

02 Shovel loading safe disposal

(1) Excavator whistle or siren should be in good condition. A warning signal should be issued when performing various operations. When working at night, all signals and lights under and under the car should be intact.

(2) When the excavator is working, if the suspended rock mass or collapse signs, blind cannons, etc. are found, the operation should be stopped immediately and the equipment should be driven to a safe place.

(3) When the excavator is working, there should be no one to stay under the cantilever and bucket and near the working surface.

(4) When loading the bucket, the bucket should not touch the car gang. The height of the bucket unloading should not exceed 0.5m, so as to avoid shocking the driver and damaging the vehicle.

(5) Do not use the excavator bucket to handle the car.

(6) When two or more excavators work on the same platform, the distance between the excavators: when transporting the vehicle, it should be no less than 3 times its maximum digging radius and should not be less than 50m; when transporting the locomotive, it should be no less than two The length of the train.

(7) Excavators working at the same time on the upper and lower steps should be staggered along the steps to a certain distance.

(8) via a cable excavator, wind pipe, when the railway crossing, should be taken to protect the cables, water pipes and air measures railway crossing; walking on soft or muddy roads, should take measures to prevent subsidence; should be taken on the downhill Anti-slip measures.

(9) When the excavator is going up and down, the drive shaft should always be in the downhill direction; the bucket should be unloaded and placed at an appropriate distance from the ground; the axis of the cantilever should be consistent with the direction of travel.

(10) When the excavator is running, the position of the cantilever frame should not be adjusted.

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